Cessna 310 - Airplane Information

The Cessna 310 was the first twin-engine aircraft design from Cessna to enter production after World War II. [1]

Cessna 310
Role: Twin-engined cabin monoplane
Manufacturer: Cessna Aircraft Company
First Flight: January 3, 1953
Primary users: General Aviation, United States Air Force
Number Built: 6,321

Development

The 310 first flew on January 3, 1953 with deliveries starting in late 1954. The sleek modern lines of the new twin were backed up by innovative features such as engine exhaust thrust augmenter tubes and the storage of all fuel in tip tanks in early models. In 1964, the engine exhaust was changed to flow under the wing instead of the augmenter tubes, which were considered to be noisy. [1]

Typical of Cessna model naming conventions, a letter was added after the model number to identify changes to the original design over the years. The first significant upgrade to the 310 series was the 310C in 1959, which introduced more powerful 260 hp (195 kW) Continental IO-470-D engines. In 1960 the 310D featured swept back vertical tail surfaces. An extra cabin window was added with the 310F. [1]

The 320 Skyknight was developed from the 310F, which featured turbocharged TSIO-470-B engines and a fourth cabin side-window. The Skyknight was in production between 1961 and 1969 (the 320E was named the Executive Skyknight), when it was replaced by the similar Turbo 310. [1]

The 310G introduced the upswept 'stabilatip' tip tanks, while the 310K replaced the rear two windows with a single unit. Subsequent developments include the 310Q and turbocharged T310Q with redesigned rear cabin with a skylight window, and the final 310R and T310R, identifiable for their lengthened noses. Production ended in 1980. [1]

Over the years there were several modifications to the 310 to improve performance. Noted aircraft engineer Jack Riley produced 2 variants. The Riley Rocket 310 and the Riley Turbostream 310. Only seven of the latter modifications took place and the Riley Turbostream is perhaps the highest performance civilian piston light twin in existence. Riley replaced the standard Continental 310 hp (230 kW) engines with Lycoming TIO540 350 HP engines. These turbo-charged intercooled engines were installed with 3 blade Hartzell propellers in a counter-rotating configuration to further increase performance and single engine safety. At 5,400 lb (2,400 kg). gross weight the aircraft had a weight to power ratio of 7.71 lb (3.50 kg). per horsepower. This resulted in a cruising speed of 260 knots (480 km/h) at 18,000 feet (5,500 m) and a rate of climb 3,000FPM.

Operational History

Commercial Applications

The Cessna 310 was a common charter aircraft for the many air taxi firms that sprang up in the general aviation boom that followed World War II. The advantages to the Cessna 310 over its contemporaries, such as the Piper Aztec, were its speed, operating costs and after market modifications such as the Robertson STOL kits which made it popular world wide for its bush flying characteristics. It could access short fields while at the same time carrying a large useful load of 2,000 lb (910 kg). or more at high speeds for a twin engine piston aircraft.

Other competitive planes to the Cessna 310 include the Raytheon (Beech) Baron, the Piper Seneca and arguably, some models of the Aero Commander.

As of 2006, many Cessna 310s are in operation in air taxi service world wide.

Military Applications

In 1957, the US Air Force selected the Cessna 310 for service as a light utility aircraft for transport and administrative support. The USAF purchased 160 unmodified 310A aircraft with the designation L-27A and unofficially nicknamed Blue Canoe[2], later changed to U-3A in 1962. An additional 36 upgraded 310 designated L-27B (later U-3B) were delivered in 1960-61; these aircraft were essentially military 310Fs and as such equipped with the more 260 hp powerful engines and can be identified by their extra cabin windows, longer nose and swept vertical fin. A USAF study after one year of operational service found the U-3A had direct operating costs of less than $12 an hour. [3]

Variants

310

Production aircraft powered by two 240 hp (180 kW) Continental O-470-B engines, 547 built.

310A

Military version of the 310 for the United States Air Force, designated L-27A and later U-3A, 160 built.

310B

310 with new instrument panel, O-470-M engines and minor changes, 225 built.

310C

310B with 260 hp (190 kW) IO-470-D engines, increased take-off weight and minor changes, 259 built.

310D

310C with swept vertical tail and minor detail changes, 268 built.

310E

Military version of the 310F, designated the L-27B and later U-3B, 36 built.

310F

310D with extra cabin window each side, pointed nose, new tip tank shape and other minor changes, 156 built.

310G

310F with slimline tip tanks, six-seat cabin an increased take-off weight and detail changes, 156 built.

310H

310G with increased take-off weight and enlarged cabin interior, 148 built.

310I

310H with IO-470-U engines, baggage compartments in rear of engine nacelles and minor detail changes, 200 built.

310J

310I with minor detailed changes, 200 built.

310K

310J with long 'vista view' side windows, increased take-off weight and IO-470-V engines, 245 built.

310L

310K with single-piece windshield, re-designed undercarriage, increased fuel capacity and minor changes, 207 built.

310M

Revised designation for the 310E.

310N

310L with revised instrument panel, optional fuel tanks in engine nacelles, IO-470-V-O engines and minor changes, 198 built.

310P

310N with a shorter nose undercarriage leg, ventral fin, and optional turbocharged Continental TSIO-520-B engines, 240 built.

310Q

310P with take-off weight increased to 5,300 lb (2,400 kg) and detailed changes, from the 401st aircraft fitted with a bulged rear cabin roof with rear view window, 1160 built.

310R

310Q with three-bladed propellers, lengthened nose with baggage compartment, 5,500 lb (2,500 kg) take-off weight and 285 hp (213 kW) IO-520-M engines, 1332 built.

310S

Original designation for the Cessna 320.

320 Skyknight

Enlarged version of the 310F with six seats, larger cabin and two turbocharged engines, 110 built.

320A Skyknight

320 with stabil-tip fuel tanks and minor changes, 47 built.

320B Skyknight

320A with nacelle baggage lockers and minor changes, 62 built.

320C Skyknight

320B with a longer cabin, optional seventh seat and minor changes, 73 built.

320D Executive Skyknight

320C with reshaped rear windows and 285 hp (213 kW) TSIO-520-B engines, 130 built.

320E Executive Skyknight

320D with pointed nose, single piece windshield, modified undercarriage, increased take-off weight and minor changes, 110 built.

320F Executive Skyknight

320E with minor changes, 45 built.

L-27A

United States military designation for the 310A, later changed to U-3A.

L-27B

United States military designation for the 310E/310M, later changed to U-3B.

U-3A

L-27A redesignated in 1963.

U-3B

L-27B redesignated in 1963.

Operators

Military

Countries known to have operated the U-3/310 include Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Indonesia, Iran, Madagascar, Mexico, Paraguay (Paraguayan Naval Aviation & Paraguayan Army Aviation), Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, United States (United States Air Force United States Navy & US Army), Venezuela, Uruguay and Zaire.

Specifications (1956 model 310)

General Characteristics

  • Crew: one
  • Capacity: four passengers
  • Length: 27 ft 0 in (8.23 m)
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 0 in (10.67 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 6 in (3.20 m)
  • Empty weight: 2,850 lb (1,293 kg)
  • Gross weight: 4,600 lb (2,087 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Continental O-470-B horizontally opposed piston engines, 240 hp (180 kW) each

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 220 mph (350 km/h; 190 kn)
  • Cruise speed: 205 mph (178 kn; 330 km/h)
  • Range: 1,000 mi (869 nmi; 1,609 km)
  • Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,096 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,700 ft/min (8.6 m/s)

Popular Culture

The Cessna 310B Songbird, registration N5348A, gained fame from being featured in the popular TV show Sky King during the late 1950s. [9]

References

  1. Demand Media (2008). "The Cessna 310/320" . Retrieved 2008-05-04 - http://www.airliners.net/aircraft-data/stats.main?id=149
  2. Krivinyi, Nikolaus: World Military Aviation , page 148. Arco Publishing Co., 1977. ISBN 0-668-04348-2
  3. Phillips, Edward H: Wings of Cessna Model 120 to the Citation III , Flying Books, 1986. ISBN 0-911139-05-2
  4. Aviation Safety Network (June 2006). "Accident description" . Retrieved 2009-07-25 - http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19670719-0
  5. National Transportation Safety Board (December 2007). "Operations Group Factual Report" (PDF).
    Retrieved 2008-05-12 - http://www.ntsb.gov/Dockets/Aviation/NYC07MA162/392068.pdf.
  6. Green, William: Observers Book of Aircraft , page 56. Frederick Warne Publishing, 1956.
  7. Internet Movie Database (2009). "Sky King" . Retrieved 2009-08-29 - http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0043232/

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